fine fhe Ba Roberto Jarry' Richardson Colaborndores amigos pacer Sakndeiocsenenm pecs 'TWIDOS yslaOsdd! rorioerrsntsarapeowais | wy 3 Revista. e. PESQUISA SOCIAL MÉTODOS E TÉCNICAS by lima_costa_2 in Types > Brochures and pesquisa. Download as PDF or read online from Scribd. Flag for. Recuperado de Poleandaerial. (n.d). Richardson, R. J. (). Pesquisa Social: métodos e técnicas.

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Must Evolve Or Move Ramsey, G. (). The state of mobile Smart mobs: the next social revolution. Journalism, 14(5), – doi/ Richardson, I. (). Pesquisa social: métodos e técnicas. Atlas, São Paulo Gil AC () Métodos e técnicas de pesquisa social, 5th edn. Atlas São Paulo Richardson RJ () Pesquisa social: métodos e técnicas, 3rd edn. Disponível em: pdf>. Acesso em: 20 abr. RICHARDSON, J. R. Pesquisa social: métodos e técnicas. 3. ed.

Going further in the search for the elements that will be fundamental for dealing with the objectives and situating what will be studied, it becomes necessary to seek, identify and access sources of information, divided into two types, in the case of social research. The researcher thus cannot abstain from seeking out the sources where they are: in the 'field' - the 'field of research', a concept which is taken to mean an intellectual construction of the researcher who, based on the reality, situates the object, the objectives, the techniques and the subjects to be investigated, belonging to the process of research.

In relation to social research: We conceive the field of research as a cutout that the researcher executes in terms of space, representing an empirical reality to be studied based on the theoretical conceptions that are the basis of the object of the investigation [ These people and these groups are the subjects of a given story to be investigated, and a theoretical construction is necessary to transform them into objects of study.

The 'field' is not 'the reality': it is a mental construction of reading of a reality prepared by the researcher in which he, necessarily, makes a reductive 'cutout' from it, instructed by theory and colored by his research objectives: The comprehension of the space of the research is not resolved only through a technical domain.

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We need to have a theoretical base for us to be able to look at the data within a framework of references that allow us to go beyond simply what is being shown to us. In this process, the researcher inserts herself, and deals with three dimensions: 1 the concrete space where the subjects that comprise the reality of the research interact in the relationships that are of interest to the objectives of the research; 2 the historical time in which the subjects live together within this space; and 3 the social relationships themselves which arise between the subjects in this time and in this space.

Ethical imperatives that are established in relation to the study relating to human beings must be followed, and certain types of care need to be taken, which include: comprehensive involvement by all those involved, including, principally, the investigator; presentation of the study proposal to the groups involved; and guarantee that they are not obliged to collaborate under any pressure CRUZ NETO, , P.

From the start, the problem detected in a given situation is usually an extensive one, with multiple facets and ample possibilities of approach. It is thus necessary to adapt the problem-situation to the demands of the investigation, through a methodological exercise. This is a process referred to as the 'cutout' of the object, understood as a construct or an analytical construction, and thus something which is not confused with reality itself, but which is essential for one to be able to understand it.

Since the problem-situation is not free-floating, or disconnected from any reality, it is part of the field, which corresponds, in empirical terms, to the theoretical 'cutout' defined by the researcher.

Thus, the mental model of reading of the reality constructed is necessarily a 'cutout', a reduction, made by the researcher, colored by her research objective and one which materializes in a limited geographical and temporal space, but which also represents an abstract plane in relation to its specified theoretical outline. The researcher prepares and lays out the limits of the problem, that is to say, the relationships inherent to the situation of that given reality that awoke her attention.

And, to start the search for a form of explanation and analysis of the problem, she formulates a question, which some authors also call the 'orienting question', in such a way as not to have simple responses such as 'yes' or 'no'. This is justified because, if a question is formulated to which the response is automatically categorical, the relevance of a study is compromised because this type of response immediately answers the question, but does not explain the problem.

At this point, in parallel to the configuration of the problem-situation, one can ask: What is the significant thing to be demonstrated in the research? What, in the thematic and professional area, is it important to present? What does one need to know about that theme and that specific object? And finally, why should one study what is proposed? The answer to this 'why' is the justification for the investigation.

The process of setting out or 'cutting out' the object, thus, is facilitated and is realized pragmatically, through employment of the phrases 'why?

This extraction demands theory investment, that is to say, study and full understanding of the theory on the subject of which the problem-situation is a part.

Richardson Pesquisa Social Métodos E Técnicas Pdf

Both pragmatism and this theory investment are in a dialectical relationship - that is to say, in constant interaction, counterposition and composition of ideas. With the 'cutout', the object of the study - what one is seeking to study - begins to acquire a sharp outline, and the mental model of reading of one aspect of the reality of the researcher is slowly instituted as a descriptive, explanatory and analytical model.

One has to pay attention to the fact that the 'object' is a companion expression of the terminology of the natural sciences. In situations that directly involve human beings, the researcher has to pay attention to the risk of reification of the subjects, and of the relations arising between them, which tends to remove their intrinsic humanity.

Remembering the pragmatic manner of the cutout referred to, the object of the study would be equivalent to the 'what' in 'what to study'. To admit that subjects, and relationships entered into by them, can be the subject of a study is to understand that the study must, in its path, take into consideration the aspects of historicity and ideology that are inherent to the occurrence or interaction and, consequently, the impossibility of neutrality.

In this process of approach, preparing questions in dialog with the literature, the researcher produces, pari passu, responses in what can be called 'hypothetical reasoning'.

Initially, they are short, generalist and incomplete responses, but they indicate the first steps and directions of the path. They hypothetical reasoning contains, as from the orienting question, the initial categorical affirmation of the researcher, also referred to as hypothesis, that is to say, a pre-solution of the problem-situation, which may come to be confirmed or not, after being submitted to test by the medium of the research.

It is not convenient that such a process should be presided over by an attitude that aims to corroborate its model and its hypothetical reasonings at any cost. Clearly, it is a mistake if the researcher seeks to force the facts to respond to the desired answers to his questions.

Francis Bacon's phrase, 'To torture nature to reveal her secrets', reveals an ambitious human desire, but one which is impossible to achieve, of intended absolute control.

The attitude of the researcher, which seems more in line with the awareness that his cognitive capacity is not absolute, should be an attitude of testing and experimentation, of constant construction, deconstruction and reconstruction of his thinking. In this process, he perceives to what extent and in what way his model describes, explains and analyzes reality, how it explains and in what way it does not explain, and with this, identifies in what aspects his model is fragile, for the purpose of seeking to enhance it and, later, again, put it to the test.

In harmony with the hypothetical reasoning, the procedures of the researcher are carried out in obedience to a purpose consisting of the objectives of the research also called the targets , which are what the researcher aims to attain, that is to say, 'for what purpose' the research will be carried out. Usually, a general objective is established relating to the hypothesis that informs what is the researcher's intention and some specific objectives related to the means, tasks, procedures, processes or strategies without which the general objective cannot be achieved.

Defining 'why' justification , 'what' object , and 'for what purpose' objectives of the research, an outline is made of the information that needs to be discovered. For this, one needs research techniques, which can be understood as the systematized procedures that the researcher carries out to obtain the necessary information, organize it, systematize it, work on it and analyze it, so that he can achieve his objectives, that is to say, 'how' the research will be made operational.

The techniques may be managed in insolation or jointly, which confers upon the researcher the expansion of the possibilities of having access to the information that will be necessary to him. From the point of view of method, of the path taken by the researcher, the techniques begin to be defined from the moment in which the object is 'cut out'.

However, the moment when their definition becomes more essential is the moment when the objectives of the research are defined. In other words: one does not take a technique as a starting point to construct an objective or an object of research! It is - clearly - the specific 'objectives' of a study that lead to the choice and application of the 'techniques'.

Information that is raised, submitted to analysis, leads the researcher to become aware of his object. It may be that, by expanding this knowledge about the object, the researcher restructures his objectives, generating new future needs for information and, thus, the application of new techniques. In studies involving primary sources, and it is in the spatial dimension that the techniques for raising information are applied - the field work - since it is in the field work that the subjects who can provide the information necessary for the researcher to achieve her objectives live and interact, and it is the place where the inter-relationships take place.

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The Internet, with its multiple interactive resources, is a new and ample repository of information to be explored by scientific research.

These innovations have, increasingly and increasingly fast, become possibilities for interchange of experiences marked by the nature of being 'virtual', that is to say, having contact between individuals without physical interaction. From these innovations as a starting point, it is possible to talk about a 'virtual field of research' and, consequently, new investigative possibilities, the virtual being understood as a factual reality.

The researcher should be attentive to the fact that his presence in the field - virtual or otherwise - interferes in the routine and the life of the subjects, which makes the survey a practice which should be imbued with care, responsibility and ethics in relation to all those who are participating.

Further, if the presence of the researcher in the field is capable of altering it - by the influences that he has on the subjects and their relationships, which happens all the time - this should also be understood as part of the data of the survey, because the investigator does not go to the field as to a blank page on which the information will be inscribed or revealed automatically. His very cultural baggage, his pre-concepts and his subjectivities, in the same way as those of the subjects of the reality under investigation, should be considered.

And this is also true with issues in the area of health: As in any social process, the object 'Health' offers a level that is able to be quantified, but exceeds it when it is a question of understanding deep and significant dimensions that cannot be imprisoned into variables [ Thus, so that the work - both the survey as a whole and the field work - should flow appropriately, good planning is indispensable.

And it is in the act of planning, precisely, that lies the kernel of the meaning that a research project contains. Research as a process: practical considerations in construction of projects in social research A research project can be understood as a 'letter of intent', the preparation of which calls for considerations of a practical nature.

The first of these relates to the elements that have a decisive influence on the methodology, both in the preparation of the project and also in the execution of the research: the questions of temporality, resources and theoretical investment.

Both internal and extension factors may be listed. Highlights of the first include: The dedication of the researcher, translated as the degree of personal affect, empathy and interest. The usual situation is that a researcher explores subjects that she finds pleasant. The time that the researcher can dedicate to carrying out the research, in that there is more to her life than professional or academic activities.

The limit of the researcher's cognitive capacity, since there is a wide variability of the theory investment to be made in relation to the aspects of reality that are able to be understood as a problem-situation.

External factors include: The significance and importance of the theme chosen, the degree to which it is unprecedented, and the academic and social values inherent to the results of the study.

Richardson - Pesquisa Social - MÇtodos e TÇcnicas.pdf.PdfCompressor-643562.pdf

The limit of time available, determined by the nature of the institutional demand. For example, surveys ordered by an institution or a group of researchers have a different timeframe from a course conclusion work.

Availability of material for consultation, data and sources necessarily for carrying out the work. The second consideration relates to the logical structure that the document should present.

The following would be fundamental questions: Source: Authors. Specifically on the question of financial resources, it is seen that this is not an obligatory aspect.

Hence this is a topic that is optional, and usually not relevant in plans for monographs, course conclusion work, dissertations or theses. Also of an optional nature is the issue of who will carry out the research and for whom it will be carried out.


Depending on the study, a team will be necessary and in this case it becomes convenient to set out the functions. The same is true if the survey was the result of a demand by some financing body or institution.

As a third consideration, reflection is invited on an exercise used in the classroom by the authors of this article, in the form of topics to be taken into account by the students: Speak about a situation observed in a given reality, problematizing it within a theme in the area of health problem-situation and indicate why it should be done justification.

Talk about possible benefits to the collective, to the scientific community, or to science, and for the subjects of the survey.

Take a 'theoretical corpus' as a basis, and based on the correlation between the problem-situation and the justification, talk briefly about the concepts that are considered fundamental for the survey. Formulate a question or a group of questions articulated with each other the orienting questions that summarize the problem identified, in a way that does not admit a simplistic response.

Continuing, formulate a provisional response hypothesis to the questions. Taking into account the 'hypothetical reasoning' that has been constructed, annunciate what you intend to study in a short and direct phrase - that is to say, provide the 'cutout' of the objective. Establish the general objective of the study in a short and direct phrase, annunciating why the study will be carried out, and, based on all this reflection, establish the specific, inter-related objectives.

Differentiate what you would like the study to generate from what it is proposed that the study will in fact produce, so that there is not any confusion with the justification nor with activities and objectives of management - since monographs, course conclusion works, dissertations or theses are academic documents. Indicate the techniques of raising, systematization and analysis of information to be used, taking the specific objectives as a starting point. With this paper, the intention has been to produce contributions to the debate on the construction of research projects, and to provide theoretical-practical inputs for those who face this demand, in particular the postgraduate students who constitute the target population of the article, and who led to its preparation.

The considerations presented here clearly aim to favor and strengthen debate, in the sense of making it even more prolific and, thus, helping prevent the preparation of research projects being a process of pain and suffering for students. The authors hope also to have stimulated the continuing reflection that the activity of science calls for, in provoking new and creative questions on the paths taken, experiences and their reflections, so that they may cultivate the constant 'unquiet' character of the multifaceted and endless quest for knowledge.

The limits, difficulties, obstacles and problems of, and in the activity of, research should, thus, be understood in the context of the dynamic of production of knowledge in a society that is in constant, and rapid, transformation. Gaston Bachelard , P. Conquered - overcoming preconception. Constructed - by reason.

Verified, in the facts. And, let us add: Flavored, by emotion. Rio de Janeiro: Contraponto, Acesso em: 3 mar. Intersubjectivity and historicity: contributions from modern hermeneutics to ethnographic research. Como se faz uma tese. Physis, Rio de Janeiro, v. Como elaborar projetos de pesquisa.

A arte de pesquisar. Rio de Janeiro: Record, This research is a method proposition for usability and accessibility evaluation of the LMS Amadeus when used by deaf people. A new version of LMS Amadeus was evaluated. Introduction Distance Education is one kind of teaching whose students are absentee from school. It has its theory focused on the transactional distance, which means that students and teachers are separated by space and time [5;10].

However, the students need to have a personal computer and to be on line. Distance Education is also democratic, with high quality, and, mainly, it is easier and more efficient to spread knowledge and researches by this kind of teaching. The long distance education gains national highlights becoming public policy item. The use of digitals technologies for teaching can change those verticals and straights structures teacher — student of interaction with information; it can also interfere with individual and social constructions of knowledge.

The digital environments offer not only brand new places and time of interaction with the information, but also a never seen way of communication between masters and beginners. The technology can help not only for digital inclusion, but also for youth and professional training continued who will play the part of social changers. Considering that one of the long distance education goals is to spread the knowledge to as many social stratums as possible, so the teaching tools need to be appropriate for the many users profiles.

In this case, the LDE have to be able to reach the needs of those people who are deaf by taking characteristics and concepts capable to include them into the project. The Amadeus [1] falls in this context as an alternative created for making simpler the job of teachers, tutors, instructional designers and students.

At the same time, it increases the numbers of creative and attractive practice without compromise the usage of its interfaces. This research has 6 six sections. After the introduction, the Amadeus interface and its mains functions will be described. Then, there will have a brief discussion about including deaf people in the Amadeus environment.

Afterward, it will be presented this research methodology and its first products. At last, there is the first conclusion e future works. LMS Amadeus A ubiquitous platform was designed during several years of human interaction research in the same category platform and used on the context of distance education analysis.

Beyond the fundamentals functions that give the chance for the teacher to teach and for the student to learn, this platform has also the ability to make its practices easier. There is no doubt that it makes the process richer and even encourages interaction and learning by action.

The LMS Amadeus enlarges a set of experiences found out by the users in many similar platforms. A Learning Management system LMS is remarkable for the Open Source application whose goal is to make easier the educational programs management, commonly used at schools and companies [6; 2].

Amadeus system is one way to understand LMS idea by incorporating new forms of interaction between users and system; users and content and users themselves. Doing this, we aimed to allow the users access and participation, make them interact with different gadget, such as: desktop applications, mobile phones, PDA and Digital Television, games, touching interfaces for illiterates.

This diversificated ways of contents access and for partners of a learning community makes Amadeus a present and accessible interface seeing everywhere. Focusing on the user at the education management, the principal element for the platform conception lays on the capacity of arrange the usage experience that we can create with it. But it should be given interacted and solid. The users interaction with themselves e with contents gave by the system allow the management of news teaching strategies and learning led by constructive theories or socially integrationist of human development.

Figure 1. The ambient LMS Amadeus 3. The Inclusion of Deaf People on LMS Amadeus project The communication and information technology — CIT, as auxiliary tools on the teaching and learning process, enables the student to live facilitator situations for the development of your potential in a playful way.

We live in a technological society, where most students, even deaf ones, need these tools seeing on their learning process. For deaf education, the ones that communicates in a visual way, the tool becomes priority. Being in touch with technologies make people free to break out of bounders and decrease communications problems, this happens not only because of the place for expose people ideas given by it, but also because the use of technologies improves the way people express their thoughts and communicate.

The users get more and more relaxed and involved turning the sociability process easier and thus their inclusion in society is guaranteed. One of the biggest problems faced by the deaf people is not being able to express themselves through their own writing language sign language. This way of learning is very painful because for deaf people the writing of a spoken language means a reunion of nonsense symbols. On reading, deaf people present restricted comprehension even after many years of scholarship.How to overcome the recurring confusion that takes place between these words, which creates problems in construction of projects?

Como encuentran comida las hormigas: Antologia Poetica Editorial Hispana pdf. The second was in , when for the first time the prize in Economic Sciences was given to a woman, Elinor Ostrom, for her work about small communities which, instead of competing with each other for the same resources, learned to cooperate to survive, something that refute the idea popularized by the Tragedy of the Commons Hardin , according to which the human being is doomed to face conflict due to the scarcity of resources.

GIL, Antonio Carlos.

Osteria Le Logge - Gianni Brunelli pdf. On the other hand, a single individual carries, in his cognitive framework, a latent potential for taking a protagonist position in each one of these ways of seeing the world, depending on his training; the fact of someone being a scientist does not imply one-dimensionality: this person might also express herself, for example, through art.

Chuck Tingle.

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