The salivary glands are exocrine glands that produce saliva. Anatomy of the Salivary Glands: the Parotid Gland (1), the Submandibular Gland (2) and the. It is constituted by the secretions of the three paired major salivary glands; the salivary glands, of which there are hundreds contained within the submucosa of. The salivary glands include paired major glands (pa- rotid, submandibular and sublingual) and minor glands throughout the upper aerodigestive tract.
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It is not our intent to cover anatomy during this course. However, you should know the locations and characteristics of the salivary glands. The fine anatomical . PDF | Salivary glands are essential organs that produce and secrete saliva to the oral cavity. During gland morphogenesis, many. Salivary glands are a group of organs secreting a watery substance that is of where, when and how major salivary glands develop in the lower jaw of the.
Salivary glands are a group of organs secreting a watery substance that is of utmost importance for several physiological functions ranging from the protection of teeth and surrounding soft tissues to the lubrication of the oral cavity, which is crucial for speech and perception of food taste.
Pathology of Salivary Gland Disease
Salivary glands are complex networks of hollow tubes and secretory units that are found in specific locations of the mouth and which, although architecturally similar, exhibit individual specificities according to their location. This chapter focuses on the embryonic development of vertebrate salivary glands, which has been classically studied in the mouse model system since the s.
We describe here where, when and how major salivary glands develop in the lower jaw of the mouse embryo. Key mechanisms involved in this process are discussed, including reciprocal tissue interactions between epithelial and mesenchymal cells, epithelial branching morphogenesis and coordinated cell deathand cell proliferation.
Immunity in the salivary gland
Table of Contents. Karger International: Forgot your password? Institutional Login Shibboleth or OpenAthens For the academic login, please select your organization on the next page.
Forgot Password? Sign up for MyKarger Institutional Login. Tucker AS, Miletich I eds: Oncocytoma and oncocytosis are benign tumors and tumor-like lesions comprised of solid nests of large polygonal cells with abundant granular eosinophilic cytoplasm that may occasionally mimic metastatic renal cell carcinoma.
Sclerosing polycystic adenosis is a rare clonal proliferation that resembles fibrocystic disease of the breast, and though benign, may show changes resembling salivary duct carcinoma. Malignant tumors Adenoid cystic carcinoma is a slow growing but relentless malignancy for which stage, histologic grade based on solid component, and p53 expression are important prognosticators.
These characteristically overexpress c-kit. Mucoepidermoid carcinoma is the most common salivary malignancy with three cell types mucous, intermediate, and epidermoid. Most grading systems are three tiered and generally correlate with prognosis; mucoepidermoid carcinomas of the submandibular gland appear more aggressive than those of the parotid gland. Malignant mixed tumors can be subcategorized into carcinoma ex-pleomorphic adenoma, true malignant mixed tumor carcinosarcoma , and metastasizing mixed tumor.
Acinic cell carcinoma is a low-grade tumor that can rarely dedifferentiate into an aggressive high grade tumor.
Epithelial-myoepithelial carcinoma is a rare biphasic low-grade neoplasm characterized by clear myoepithelial cells and small ducts and may mimic other clear cell lesions of the head and neck.
Basal cell adenocarcinoma resembles its benign counterpart, basal cell adenoma, and is distinguished mainly by the presence of invasion, though ancillary studies such as immunoperoxidase stains for Ki 67, p53, bc, and epidermal growth factor receptor may help in diagnosis. Myoepithelial carcinoma also resembles its benign counterpart and is separated mainly by the presence of invasion, mitoses, and necrosis.
Nuclear pleomorphism may be a poor prognostic sign.
Salivary duct carcinoma is a high grade carcinoma that expresses androgen receptor and herneu. It can be confused with low-grade cribriform cystadenocarcinoma, a recently characterized entity that resembles a lowgrade mammary type ductal carcinoma. Rare malignant tumors include cystadenocarcinomas, large cell carcinoma, small cell carcinoma, and primary squamous cell carcinomas; all but cystadenocarcinomas behave in an aggressive fashion.
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This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access. Preview Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF. References 1. Abbondanzo SL Extranodal marginal-zone Bcell lymphoma of the salivary gland.
A clinicopathologic study of twenty cases. The partial inhibition of these critical motility components modestly influences the ability of the sporozoites to migrate to the liver and establish a normal hepatic infection. Results Mass spectrometry of sporozoites from vector saliva To identify mosquito proteins in saliva that may interact with Plasmodium, sporozoites were collected directly from the saliva of infected Anopheles gambiae mosquitoes Fig. Saliva from age-matched naive mosquitoes was collected in the same manner as a control.
After washing the sporozoites, liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry LC MS-MS was utilized to identify potential mosquito proteins that might be strongly associated with the sporozoites in saliva. A complete list of all of the A. One mosquito protein, AGAP, was detected in all three independent biological replicates associated with Plasmodium berghei sporozoites Fig.
Introduction to Salivary Glands: Structure, Function and Embryonic Development
Three other mosquito proteins were also identified in two of the sporozoite replicates—a histone 2B-like protein, a protein with homology to papilin, and an unknown protein with a predicted signal peptide Fig. In an additional study, to extend this observation to a Plasmodium species that infects humans, we utilized a colony of Anopheles stephensi mosquitoes infected with the human malaria parasite, Plasmodium falciparum. ASTE, the A. Three independent biological replicates were used.
Each Venn diagram represents the A. The numbers in red indicate proteins that were only present in the samples from Plasmodium-infected mosquitoes. The proteins identified in two of the independent experiments are highlighted in blue and green, respectively Full size image AGAP is expressed in Anopheles gambiae SGs A.
The human and mouse GILT active sites are characterized by two reactive cysteines CxxC that reduce disulfide bonds 35 , Sera from mice immunized with ovalbumin OVA was used as a control to demonstrate the specificity of sera from mice immunized with rGILT.
This suggests that the interaction between mosGILT and Plasmodium potentially begins at some point in the SGs and then allows the protein to travel in association with the sporozoites into the mammalian host. Mass spectrometry of A. Furthermore, using a similar approach, the amount of mosGILT associated with sporozoites per mosquito was estimated to be 0.
Sporozoites had detectable staining of endogenous mosGILT at the cell surface. Notably, sporozoites with elevated levels of mosGILT staining were often detected in a folded morphology Fig.
Within the SG microenvironment, P. Together, these microscopy studies reveal that mosGILT interacts with the surface of SG sporozoites within their natural microenvironment.
An irrelevant mouse monoclonal, anti-V5, was used as a control. All images are representative of more than three independent experiments. Sporozoites labeled with a control mouse serum top left. Sporozoites labeled with the anti-mosGILT monoclonal antibody, top right and bottom panels.Beginning with the embryology, anatomy and physiology of the salivary glands, the first section of the book discusses radiographic imaging, infections, cystic conditions, sialoadenitis and sialolithiasis, and systemic diseases.
New to MyKarger? A third of malignant tumours have an indolent nature and may be clinically indistinguishable from benign lesions.
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Front Oral Biol. Carcinoma ex pleomorphic adenoma is a broad category of carcinomas of the salivary glands. Carcinoma of major salivary glands.
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